Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents. Hint Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book Close hint. Abstract Half a century after the publication of the first Thermoluminescence TL ages, the field of Luminescence Dating has reached a level of maturity. Both research and applications from all fields of archaeological science, from archaeological materials to anthropology and geoarchaeology, now routinely employ luminescence dating. The advent of optically stimulated luminescence OSL techniques and the potential for exploring a spectrum from mono-minerallic single grains to polymineral multi-aliquots enhanced the applicability, accuracy and the precision of luminescence dating. The present contribution reviews the physical basis, mechanisms and methodological aspects of luminescence dating; discusses advances in instrumentations and facilities, improvements in analytical procedures, and statistical treatment of data along with some examples of applications across continents. The case studies review the dating of heated and solar bleached archaeological material artefacts, sediments, rocks, rock art and buildings that cover all periods from Middle Palaeolithic to Medieval Eras and both Old and New World archaeology.

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The topic of early iron-metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa encompasses both studies of the technology and archaeology of indigenous iron-production, and also an understanding of the role that iron production played in African societies before European colonization. Some evidence from historical linguistics suggests that the Nok culture of Nigeria may have practiced iron smelting from as early as BC; [1] [2] archaeological evidence dates this not later than BC.

The Bantu expansion spread the technology to Eastern and Southern Africa during c. Although the origins of iron working in Africa have been the subject of scholarly interest since the s, it is still not known whether this technology diffused into sub-Saharan Africa from the Mediterranean region, or whether it was invented there independently of iron working elsewhere.

blasting operations using slags that contain trace amounts of beryllium. The compliance date of this final standard as modified is September 14,

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Carbonate formation in waste from the steel industry could constitute a nontrivial proportion of the global requirements for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a potentially low cost. From the analyses of solution saturation states, we estimate that between and tons of CO 2 have precipitated from the drainage waters. This implies that uncontrolled deposition of slag is insufficient to maximize carbon sequestration, and there may be considerable quantities of unreacted legacy deposits available for atmospheric carbon sequestration.

Figure 1. Location map showing the topography of the former Consett Steelworks drainage systems. Figure 2. Estimate of the depth of the slag deposit based on the comparison of pre- and post-deposit digital elevation models. Figure 3.

Magnetism in Copper Slags

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Title: Archaeometallurgical studies on the slags of the Middle Bronze Age copper smelting site S1, Styria, Austria. Editor(s): Issue Date: Conference Name​.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal. ON examining the magnetic properties of some ores and minerals, I observed that a specimen of ore furnace slag from copper smelting was strongly polar magnetic.

Reprints and Permissions. Magnetism in Copper Slags. Nature 6, 43 Download citation. Issue Date : 16 May

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A new early lead smelting site was discovered by accident in July when returning from looking for something else. The site comprises a discrete mound of slag, standing out in the landscape because of its short green grass surrounded by the more usual course pale brown grasses. It comprises a smooth-profiled mound just under 20m by 8m across and 1m high, with a steep downslope side and a flatter top. The shape of the mound strongly suggests that there was a hearth near its upslope edge on the flat top, rather than this being a dump of material placed here from elsewhere in advance of further processing.

Similarly, the smooth sides indicate there has been no attempt to remove material for washing, further smelting or transport to another site. A variety of slags are visible in a floodwater-erosion patch and small animal scrapes; there are many cream coloured pieces that are light in weight with multiple voids, but other material includes very heavy pieces containing only part-smelted galena, and a few small pieces of grey-green glassy material.

National Minerals Information Center

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radiocarbon date of +/ BP (Beta), Figure 1: Location of the Pentrwyn smelting site and the Great. Orme mine site. Figure 2: General view​.

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Smelting Lead on Lodge Moor, Ughill, Sheffield, South Yorks

The research carried on in Fribourg cover all aspects of the metallurgical process, from mining to the manufacturing of finished objects, with a particular emphasis on the ancient metallurgy of iron. Current work is focusing on the analysis of metallurgical residues, in particular slags from ore reduction sites or from smithing workshops. The aim is, of course, to understand the underlying technology, but also to give the archaeologists clues that could lead to a better comprehension of archaeological evidence.

In the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria (now Igboland), archaeological sites containing iron smelting furnaces and slag have been excavated dating to

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